Grellscheid, S.N. and Dalgliesh, C. and Rozanska, A. and Grellscheid, D. and Bourgeois, C.F. and Stévenin, J. and Elliott, D.J. (2011) 'Molecular design of a splicing switch responsive to the RNA binding protein Tra2β.', Nucleic acids research., 39 (18). pp. 8092-8104.
Tra2β regulates a number of splicing switches including activation of the human testis-specific exon HIPK3-T in the Homeodomain Interacting Protein Kinase 3 gene. By testing HIPK3-T exons of different intrinsic strengths, we found Tra2β most efficiently activated splicing inclusion of intrinsically weak exons, although these were spliced at a lower overall level. Both the RRM and N-terminal RS-rich region of Tra2β were required for splicing activation. Bioinformatic searches for splicing enhancers and repressors mapped four physically distinct exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) within HIPK3-T, each containing the known Tra2β AGAA-rich binding site. Surprisingly disruption of each single ESE prevented Tra2β-mediated activation, although single mutated exons could still bind Tra2β protein by gel shifts and functional splicing analyses. Titration experiments indicate an additive model of HIPK3-T splicing activation, requiring availability of an array of four distinct ESEs to enable splicing activation. To enable this efficient Tra2β-mediated splicing switch to operate, a closely adjacent downstream and potentially competitive stronger 5′-splice site is actively repressed. Our data indicate that a novel arrangement of multiple mono-specific AGAA-rich ESEs coupled to a weak 5′-splice site functions as a responsive gauge. This gauge monitors changes in the specific nuclear concentration of the RNA binding protein Tra2β, and co-ordinately regulates HIPK3-T exon splicing inclusion.
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|Publisher Web site:||http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkr495|
|Publisher statement:||© The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.|
|Record Created:||15 Feb 2013 10:05|
|Last Modified:||15 Feb 2013 10:52|
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