Mbare, O. and Lindsay, S.W. and Fillinger, U. (2014) 'Aquatain® Mosquito Formulation (AMF) for the control of immature Anopheles Gambaie sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis : dose-responses, persistence and sub-lethal effect.', Parasites and vectors., 7 . p. 438.
Background: Persistent monomolecular surface films could benefit larval source management for malaria control by reducing programme costs and managing insecticide resistance. This study evaluated the efficacy of the silicone-based surface film, Aquatain® Mosquito Formulation (AMF), for the control of the Afrotropical malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis in laboratory dose–response assays and standardized field tests. Methods: Tests were carried out following guidelines made by the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES). Sub-lethal effects of AMF were evaluated by measuring egg-laying and hatching of eggs laid by female An. gambiae s.s. that emerged from habitats treated with a dose that resulted in 50% larval mortality in laboratory tests. Results: Both vector species were highly susceptible to AMF. The estimated lethal doses to cause complete larval mortality in dose–response tests in the laboratory were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-1.59) ml/m2 for An. gambiae s.s. and 1.35 (95% CI 1.09-1.75) ml/m2 for An. arabiensis. Standardized field tests showed that a single dose of AMF at 1 ml/m2 inhibited emergence by 85% (95% CI 82-88%) for six weeks. Females exposed as larvae to a sub-lethal dose of AMF were 2.2 times less likely (Odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% CI 0.26-0.78) to lay eggs compared to those from untreated ponds. However, exposure to sub-lethal doses neither affected the number of eggs laid by females nor the proportion hatching. Conclusion: AMF provided high levels of larval control for a minimum of six weeks, with sub-lethal doses reducing the ability of female mosquitoes to lay eggs. The application of AMF provides a promising novel strategy for larval control interventions against malaria vectors in Africa. Further field studies in different eco-epidemiological settings are justified to determine the persistence of AMF film for mosquito vector control and its potential for inclusion in integrated vector management programmes.
|Keywords:||Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, Anopheles arabiensis, Vector control, Surface film, Larval source management.|
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|Publisher Web site:||http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-438|
|Publisher statement:||© 2014 Mbare et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.|
|Record Created:||23 Sep 2014 10:20|
|Last Modified:||23 Sep 2014 13:16|
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