Thompson, R. N. and Smith, P. M. and Gibson, S. A. and Mattey, D. P. and Dickin, A. P. (2002) 'Ankerite carbonatite from Swartbooisdrif, Namibia : the first evidence for magmatic ferrocarbonatite.', Contributions to mineralogy and petrology., 146 (3). pp. 377-395.
Although general accounts of carbonatites usually envisage Ca-Mg carbonate melts evolving by fractional crystallisation to Fe-rich residua, there is longstanding concern that ferrocarbonatites may actually be products of hydrothermal rather than magmatic processes. All previously published examples of ankerite- and/or siderite-carbonatites fail to show one or more of the isotopic criteria (all determined on the same sample) thought to be diagnostic of crystallised magmatic carbonate liquids. Ferrocarbonatite dykes cut Archaean-Proterozoic basement at Swartbooisdrif, adjacent to the NW Namibia-Angola border. Their age is uncertain but probably ~1,100 Ma and their associated fenites are rich in sodalite. Where unaffected by subsequent recrystallisation, their petrographic textures resemble those of silicate layered intrusions; ankerite, magnetite and occasionally calcite are cumulus phases, joined by trace amounts of intercumulus pyrochlore. Ankerite is zoned, from Ca(Mg, Fe2+)(CO3)2 cores towards ferroan dolomite rims. Calcite contains ~1.7% SrO, plus abundant, tiny exsolved strontianite grains. Magnetite is close to pure Fe3O4. Pyrochlore has fine-scale euhedral oscillatory zoning and light-REE-enriched rims. ICP-MS analysis of magnetite and pyrochlore from the carbonatite allows calculation of their modal amounts from mass-balance considerations. Sodalite from the fenite is REE poor. Geothermometry, using either the calcite-dolomite solvus or oxygen isotope fractionation between calcite and magnetite, gives temperatures in the range 420-460 °C. Initial Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios of the ferrocarbonatites (87Sr/86Sr=0.7033; )Nd=0.2-1.0; 206Pb/204Pb=16.37; 207Pb/204Pb=15.42; 208Pb/204Pb=36.01) are appropriate for an ~1,100-Ma magmatic carbonatite. Likewise, carbonate '18O=8.0 and '13C=-7.36 indicate little or no subsequent shift from magmatic values. It appears that dense ankerite and magnetite dominated crystal accumulation from a melt saturated in these phases, plus calcite and pyrochlore, with prior fractionation of a silicate mineral and apatite. The resulting ferrocarbonatite lacks a silicate mineral (excluding fenite xenocrysts) and apatite. It has unusually low (basalt-like) REE abundances and (La/Lu)n, and low concentrations of Ba, Rb, U, Th, Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf. Very high Nb/Ta and low Zr/Hf imply that the evolution of the parental magma involved immiscible separation of a carbonate from a silicate melt. The sodalite-dominated Swartbooisdrif fenites suggest that the parental melt also had a substantial Na content, in contrast with the ferrocarbonatite rock.
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|Publisher Web site:||http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00410-002-0350-0|
|Record Created:||16 Feb 2007|
|Last Modified:||08 Apr 2009 16:27|
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