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Spatio-temporal analysis of malaria vector density from baseline through intervention in a high transmission setting.

Alegana, V.A. and Kigozi, S.P. and Nankabirwa, J. and Arinaitwe, E. and Kigozi, R. and Mawejje, H. and Kilama, M. and Ruktanonchai, N.W. and Ruktanonchai, C.W. and Drakeley, C. and Lindsay, S.W. and Greenhouse, B. and Kamya, M.R. and Smith, D.L. and Atkinson, P.M. and Dorsey, G. and Tatem, A.J. (2016) 'Spatio-temporal analysis of malaria vector density from baseline through intervention in a high transmission setting.', Parasites & vectors., 9 (1). p. 637.

Abstract

Background: An increase in effective malaria control since 2000 has contributed to a decline in global malaria morbidity and mortality. Knowing when and how existing interventions could be combined to maximise their impact on malaria vectors can provide valuable information for national malaria control programs in different malaria endemic settings. Here, we assess the effect of indoor residual spraying on malaria vector densities in a high malaria endemic setting in eastern Uganda as part of a cohort study where the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) was high. Methods: Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled monthly using CDC light traps in 107 households selected randomly. Information on the use of malaria interventions in households was also gathered and recorded via a questionnaire. A Bayesian spatio-temporal model was then used to estimate mosquito densities adjusting for climatic and ecological variables and interventions. Results: Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato) were most abundant (89.1%; n = 119,008) compared to An. funestus (sensu lato) (10.1%, n = 13,529). Modelling results suggest that the addition of indoor residual spraying (bendiocarb) in an area with high coverage of permethrin-impregnated LLINs (99%) was associated with a major decrease in mosquito vector densities. The impact on An. funestus (s.l.) (Rate Ratio 0.1508; 97.5% CI: 0.0144–0.8495) was twice as great as for An. gambiae (s.l.) (RR 0.5941; 97.5% CI: 0.1432–0.8577). Conclusions: High coverage of active ingredients on walls depressed vector populations in intense malaria transmission settings. Sustained use of combined interventions would have a long-term impact on mosquito densities, limiting infectious biting.

Item Type:Article
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First Live Deposit - 15 March 2017
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Status:Peer-reviewed
Publisher Web site:https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1917-3
Publisher statement:© The Author(s). 2016 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Record Created:14 Mar 2017 16:44
Last Modified:15 Mar 2017 10:00

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