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Demand for household sanitation in India using NFHS-3 data.

Banerjee, Anurag N. and Banik, Nilanjan and Dalmia, Ashvika (2017) 'Demand for household sanitation in India using NFHS-3 data.', Empirical economics., 53 (1). pp. 307-327.


India has the highest number of people defecating in the open, and the Indian Government is trying to eradicate by constructing toilets for its citizens. This paper is about whether the government is likely to succeed in its cleanliness drive mission by a supply-side policy. We examine the household preference and other the factors leading to open defecation in India. We examine preference for having a toilet in the household over the preference of other household durable goods. Our results suggest toilets get a lower preference—ranked 12, out of 21 different types of consumer durables we investigate. The results also indicate a strong case for imparting education and public awareness, especially, among the female cohort. We find the odds of having toilets in a household with an educated woman (18 years of schooling) is 3.1 times more than a household with illiterate or preschool educated women. Among other factors households living in urban areas are 19 times more likely to have toilets in comparison with their rural counterparts.

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First Live Deposit - 04 July 2017
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Publisher statement:© The Author(s) 2017 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Record Created:04 Jul 2017 10:58
Last Modified:18 Jul 2017 09:41

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