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Bird-biting mosquitoes on farms in southern England.

Brugman, Victor Albert and Medlock, Jolyon M. and Logan, James G. and Wilson, Anthony J. and Lindsay, Steve W and Fooks, Anthony R. and Mertens, Peter P.C. and Johnson, Nicholas and Carpenter, Simon T. (2018) 'Bird-biting mosquitoes on farms in southern England.', Veterinary record., 183 .


Mosquitoes that blood-feed on avian hosts are important vectors of many arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). In Europe, these include West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUTV) and Sindbis virus. These are all maintained in enzootic bird-mosquito-bird cycles and are important veterinary and medical threats to the UK. Principally, veterinary concerns lie with the risks to domestic animals, such as the incidental spillover infection of horses with WNV which may lead to serious neurological sequelae. Wildlife may also be affected, with certain wild birds being highly susceptible to infection and death with USUTV, although poultry are less susceptible. To date, UK surveillance for these viruses has not yielded evidence of active virus transmission although serological evidence has been reported.

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Publisher statement:© British Veterinary Association 2018. Re-use permitted under CC BY. This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to copy, redistribute, remix, transform and build upon this work for any purpose, provided the original work is properly cited, a link to the licence is given, and indication of whether changes were made. See:
Date accepted:06 July 2018
Date deposited:08 November 2018
Date of first online publication:11 August 2018
Date first made open access:08 November 2018

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