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Asymmetric dominance and phantom decoy effects in games.

Colman, A. M. and Pulford, B. D. and Bolger, F. (2007) 'Asymmetric dominance and phantom decoy effects in games.', Organizational behavior and human decision processes., 104 (2). pp. 193-206.


In individual choices between alternatives x and y, the availability of a third alternative z, judged inferior to x but not to y, tends to increase preferences for x. Two experiments investigated corresponding strategic asymmetric dominance effects in games. In Experiment 1, 72 players chose strategies in six symmetric 3 × 3 games, each having one strategy dominating just one other, or in reduced 2 × 2 games constructed by deleting the dominated strategies. Asymmetrically dominated strategies, even when unavailable (phantom decoy), increased choices of the strategies that dominated them and bolstered decision confidence. In Experiment 2, 81 participants played 12 similar but asymmetric games with or without dominated strategies, and similar asymmetric dominance, phantom decoy, and confidence effects were found.

Item Type:Article
Keywords:Asymmetric dominance, Confidence, Focal point, Game theory, Property alpha, Reason-based choice, Strategic dominance.
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Record Created:20 Feb 2009
Last Modified:08 Apr 2009 16:34

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