Singh, R. B. and De Meester, F. and Wilson, D. and Dharwadkar, S. (2012) 'Can a high W-6/W-3 fatty acid ratio in the tissues predispose infertility ?', 22nd Indian Society for the Study of Reproduction and Fertility Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi..
Mediterranean diet appears to be protective and Western diet may be a risk factor for emergence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDS), including infertility. Inflammation is the most important manifestation and risk factor for NCDs which can be prevented by increased intake of Mediterranean foods rich in omega 3 fatty acids (w-3) as well as by supplementation of w-3 fatty acids and coenzyme Q10. Clinical trials indicate that w-3 fatty acids and coenzyme Q10 can be beneficial in enhancing the sperm motility and number and may be helpful in conception.The biochemical contents of sperm and seminal fluid as well as of egg coating is also imperative in the mechanism of fertilization. Progesterone is known to activate CatSper, (cation channel of sperm) the principal Ca2+ channel of the sperm flagellum which is important in fertilization. The receptors on the external cell membrane to which progesterone binds may be under the influence of various nutrients. The present review is focused on the significance of w-6 to w-3 ratio on the motility of sperms. Majority of cytoprotective neutraceuticals including w-3 fatty acids and Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ10) are present in the mitochondria cell membranes. Since composition of the spermatozoa may be important in infertility, this poses the possibility that w-6/w-3 ratio of the spermatozoa and seminal fluid can influence progesterone activity and its sensing by the Ca+2 channel. Recent studies demonstrated that the CatSper channel serves as a novel progesterone receptor that can mediate a fast, non-genomic effect of progesterone at the level of the sperm plasma membrane. Further studies are necessary to find out the role of w-6/w-3 ratio and CoQ10 levels on Ca+2 channels of the sperm, in the seminal fluid and ova.
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