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A tool box for operational mosquito larval control : preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Program in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Fillinger, U. and Kannady, K. and William, G. and Vanek, M.J. and Dongus, S. and Nyika, D. and Geissbuehler, Y. and Chaki, P.P. and Govella, N.J. and Mathenge, E.M. and Singer, B.H. and Mshinda, H. and Lindsay, S.W. and Tanner, M. and Mtasiwa, D. and de Castro, M.C. and Killeen, G.F. (2008) 'A tool box for operational mosquito larval control : preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Program in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.', Malaria journal., 7 . p. 20.


Background: As the population of Africa rapidly urbanizes, large populations could be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes if cost-effective and scalable implementation systems can be designed. Methods: A recently initiated Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to modestly-paid community members, known as Community-Owned Resource Persons (CORPs). New vector surveillance, larviciding and management systems were designed and evaluated in 15 city wards to allow timely collection, interpretation and reaction to entomologic monitoring data using practical procedures that rely on minimal technology. After one year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis commenced in March 2006 in three selected wards. Results: The procedures and staff management systems described greatly improved standards of larval surveillance relative to that reported at the outset of this programme. In the first year of the programme, over 65,000 potential Anopheles habitats were surveyed by 90 CORPs on a weekly basis. Reaction times to vector surveillance at observations were one day, week and month at ward, municipal and city levels, respectively. One year of community-based larviciding reduced transmission by the primary malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l., by 31% (95% C.I. = 21.6–37.6%; p = 0.04). Conclusion: This novel management, monitoring and evaluation system for implementing routine larviciding of malaria vectors in African cities has shown considerable potential for sustained, rapidly responsive, data-driven and affordable application. Nevertheless, the true programmatic value of larviciding in urban Africa can only be established through longer-term programmes which are stably financed and allow the operational teams and management infrastructures to mature by learning from experience.

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Publisher statement:© 2008 Fillinger et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Record Created:21 May 2012 11:05
Last Modified:11 May 2018 14:09

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