Durham Research Online
DRO is an institutional repository, a database of records describing Durham University's research outputs. The full-text of an output is attached to its record if the copyright agreement with the publisher permits. Usually the author's final, peer-reviewed manuscript - the post-print - rather than the published version.
DRO is part of a global network of Open-Access (OA) repositories. Their purpose is to provide free access to research, much of it publicly funded.
Author deposit of post-prints in repositories is known as author self-archiving or the Green route to Open-Access.
- Key characteristics of repositories
- Open-Access drivers
- Types of repository service
- Other routes to Open-Access publication
Key characteristics of repositories
- Contents can be used free of charge
- No registration process or institutional subscription required
- Full-text available if copyright agreements with publishers permit
- Usually the author's final, peer-reviewed manuscript - the post-print - is deposited
- Availability of Internet technologies able to disseminate digital information to a global audience
- Growth in the volume of research literature
- Rising costs of academic journals
No research institution, however prosperous, can now afford access to all relevant research literature.top
Types of repository service
- Institutional repositories
- Collect research outputs from a particular institution and cover a range of subjects. DRO is an institutional repository. Use OpenDOAR to view an alphabetical list of repositories, grouped by country.
- Subject repositories
- Collect research outputs from specific subjects, regardless of which institution produced the research. Examples: arXiv (Physics, Computer Science and Maths) and Economists Online. Use OpenDOAR to search for subject repositories.
- Funders' repositories
- Increasing numbers of research funders require grant holders to deposit their research outputs in an Open-Access repository. Use JULIET to view summary details of funders' Open-Access policies.
- Cross-repository services
Other routes to Open-Access publication
Authors can make their work Open-Access in ways other than self-archiving in repositories:
- Open-Access journals
- Contain scholarly, peer-reviewed articles freely available to readers. Use the Directory of Open-Access Journals (DOAJ) to view a list of over 5,000 titles. The publishers finance their operations in different ways:
- Authors pay the publisher a publication fee or 'Article Processing Charge' (APC). Costs vary, but can be up to £3,000. Some research funders allow APCs to be included in grant applications. The 'Author-pays' option is known as the Gold route to Open-Access.
- Authors' institutions pay the publisher - a variant of the above 'Author-pays' Gold Open-Access. Example: BioMed Central. Payment options include an annual subscription or quarterly payment in arrears to publish articles in BioMed's journals written by the institution's authors. Articles are peer-reviewed before being accepted for publication.
- Subsidy by the institution or professional society hosting the journal. Revenue from membership fees or subscriptions to any printed version of the journal may be used to fund the Open-Access version. Use the Directory of Open-Access Journals (DOAJ) to search for Open-Access journals which do not charge a publication fee.
- Journals which contain a mix of Open-Access articles alongside subscription-only articles. Many of the large, commercial publishers now offer authors or their institutions the option to pay to make their articles Open-Access. Examples: Wiley-Blackwell (OnlineOpen) ; Springer (Open Choice) ; Taylor & Francis (iOpenAccess).
- Although Open-Access came to prominence in the area of journal publishing, there have been significant developments in book and monograph publishing. Contrary to some expectations, the availability of Open-Access versions of hard-copies seems not to have reduced print sales. A number of University Presses are exploring this new means of scholarly dissemination. Example: the 'Open Access Publishing in European Networks' project OAPEN - a partnership including Amsterdam University Press, Manchester University Press and Göttingen University Press.