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Killer whale nuclear genome and mtDNA reveal widespread population bottleneck during the last glacial maximum.

Moura, A.E. and Janse van Rensburg, C. and Pilot, M. and Tehrani, A. and Best, P.B. and Thornton, M. and Plön, S. and de Bruyn, P.J.N. and Worley, K.C. and Gibbs, R.A. and Dahlheim, M.E. and Hoelzel, A.R. (2014) 'Killer whale nuclear genome and mtDNA reveal widespread population bottleneck during the last glacial maximum.', Molecular biology and evolution., 31 (5). pp. 1121-1131.

Abstract

Ecosystem function and resilience is determined by the interactions and independent contributions of individual species. Apex predators play a disproportionately determinant role through their influence and dependence on the dynamics of prey species. Their demographic fluctuations are thus likely to reflect changes in their respective ecological communities and habitat. Here we investigate the historical population dynamics of the killer whale based on draft nuclear genome data for the Northern Hemisphere and mtDNA data worldwide. We infer a relatively stable population size throughout most of the Pleistocene, followed by an order of magnitude decline and bottleneck during the Weichselian glacial period. Global mtDNA data indicates that while most populations declined, at least one population retained diversity in a stable, productive ecosystem off southern Africa. We conclude that environmental changes during the last glacial period promoted the decline of a top ocean predator, that these events contributed to the pattern of diversity among extant populations, and that the relatively high diversity of a population currently in productive, stable habitat off South Africa suggests a role for ocean productivity in the widespread decline.

Item Type:Article
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Status:Peer-reviewed
Publisher Web site:http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msu058
Publisher statement:© The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Date accepted:17 January 2014
Date deposited:05 February 2014
Date of first online publication:04 February 2014
Date first made open access:No date available

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