Abramowski, A. and Acero, F. and Aharonian, F. and Akhperjanian, A.G. and Anton, G. and Balenderan, S. and Balzer, A. and Barnacka, A. and Becherini, Y. and Becker Tjus, J. and Bernlöhr, K. and Birsin, E. and Biteau, J. and Bochow, A. and Boisson, C. and Bolmont, J. and Bordas, P. and Brucker, J. and Brun, F. and Brun, P. and Bulik, T. and Carrigan, S. and Casanova, S. and Cerruti, M. and Chadwick, P.M. and Chaves, R.C.G. and Cheesebrough, A. and Colafrancesco, S. and Cologna, G. and Conrad, J. and Couturier, C. and Dalton, M. and Daniel, M.K. and Davids, I.D. and Degrange, B. and Deil, C. and deWilt, P. and Dickinson, H.J. and Djannati-Ataï, A. and Domainko, W. and Drury, L.O'C. and Dubus, G. and Dutson, K. and Dyks, J. and Dyrda, M. and Egberts, K. and Eger, P. and Espigat, P. and Fallon, L. and Farnier, C. and Fegan, S. and Feinstein, F. and Fernandes, M.V. and Fernandez, D. and Fiasson, A. and Fontaine, G. and Förster, A. and Füßling, M. and Gajdus, M. and Gallant, Y.A. and Garrigoux, T. and Gast, H. and Giebels, B. and Glicenstein, J.F. and Glück, B. and Göring, D. and Grondin, M.-H. and Grudzińska, M. and Häffner, S. and Hague, J.D. and Hahn, J. and Hampf, D. and Harris, J. and Heinz, S. and Heinzelmann, G. and Henri, G. and Hermann, G. and Hillert, A. and Hinton, J.A. and Hofmann, W. and Hofverberg, P. and Holler, M. and Horns, D. and Jacholkowska, A. and Jahn, C. and Jamrozy, M. and Jung, I. and Kastendieck, M.A. and Katarzyński, K. and Katz, U. and Kaufmann, S. and Khélifi, B. and Klepser, S. and Klochkov, D. and Kluźniak, W. and Kneiske, T. and Kolitzus, D. and Komin, Nu. and Kosack, K. and Kossakowski, R. and Krayzel, F. and Krüger, P.P. and Laffon, H. and Lamanna, G. and Lefaucheur, J. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Lenain, J.-P. and Lennarz, D. and Lohse, T. and Lopatin, A. and Lu, C.-C. and Marandon, V. and Marcowith, A. and Masbou, J. and Maurin, G. and Maxted, N. and Mayer, M. and McComb, T.J.L. and Medina, M.C. and Méhault, J. and Menzler, U. and Moderski, R. and Mohamed, M. and Moulin, E. and Naumann, C.L. and Naumann-Godo, M. and de Naurois, M. and Nedbal, D. and Nguyen, N. and Niemiec, J. and Nolan, S.J. and Ohm, S. and de Oña Wilhelmi, E. and Opitz, B. and Ostrowski, M. and Oya, I. and Panter, M. and Parsons, R.D. and Paz Arribas, M. and Pekeur, N.W. and Pelletier, G. and Perez, J. and Petrucci, P.-O. and Peyaud, B. and Pita, S. and Pühlhofer, G. and Punch, M. and Quirrenbach, A. and Raab, S. and Raue, M. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Renaud, M. and de los Reyes, R. and Rieger, F. and Ripken, J. and Rob, L. and Rosier-Lees, S. and Rowell, G. and Rudak, B. and Rulten, C.B. and Sahakian, V. and Sanchez, D.A. and Santangelo, A. and Schlickeiser, R. and Schulz, A. and Schwanke, U. and Schwarzburg, S. and Schwemmer, S. and Sheidaei, F. and Skilton, J.L. and Sol, H. and Spengler, G. and Stawarz, Ł. and Steenkamp, R. and Stegmann, C. and Stinzing, F. and Stycz, K. and Sushch, I. and Szostek, A. and Tavernet, J.-P. and Terrier, R. and Tluczykont, M. and Trichard, C. and Valerius, K. and van Eldik, C. and Vasileiadis, G. and Venter, C. and Viana, A. and Vincent, P. and Völk, H.J. and Volpe, F. and Vorobiov, S. and Vorster, M. and Wagner, S.J. and Ward, M. and White, R. and Wierzcholska, A. and Wouters, D. and Zacharias, M. and Zajczyk, A. and Zdziarski, A.A. and Zech, A. and Zechlin, H.-S. (2013) 'Search for very-high-energy γ-ray emission from Galactic globular clusters with H.E.S.S.', Astronomy and astrophysics, 551 . A26.
Context. Globular clusters (GCs) are established emitters of high-energy (HE, 100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) γ-ray radiation which could originate from the cumulative emission of the numerous millisecond pulsars (msPSRs) in the clusters’ cores or from inverse Compton (IC) scattering of relativistic leptons accelerated in the GC environment. These stellar clusters could also constitute a new class of sources in the very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray regime, judging from the recent detection of a signal from the direction of Terzan 5 with the H.E.S.S. telescope array. Aims. To search for VHE γ-ray sources associated with other GCs, and to put constraints on leptonic emission models, we systematically analyzed the observations towards 15 GCs taken with the H.E.S.S. array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Methods. We searched for point-like and extended VHE γ-ray emission from each GC in our sample and also performed a stacking analysis combining the data from all GCs to investigate the hypothesis of a population of faint emitters. Assuming IC emission as the origin of the VHE γ-ray signal from the direction of Terzan 5, we calculated the expected γ-ray flux from each of the 15 GCs, based on their number of millisecond pulsars, their optical brightness and the energy density of background photon fields. Results. We did not detect significant VHE γ-ray emission from any of the 15 GCs in either of the two analyses. Given the uncertainties related to the parameter determinations, the obtained flux upper limits allow to rule out the simple IC/msPSR scaling model for NGC 6388 and NGC 7078. The upper limits derived from the stacking analyses are factors between 2 and 50 below the flux predicted by the simple leptonic scaling model, depending on the assumed source extent and the dominant target photon fields. Therefore, Terzan 5 still remains exceptional among all GCs, as the VHE γ-ray emission either arises from extra-ordinarily efficient leptonic processes, or from a recent catastrophic event, or is even unrelated to the GC itself.
|Keywords:||Globular clusters: general, Radiation mechanisms: non-thermal, Pulsars: general, Gamma rays: general.|
|Full text:||(VoR) Version of Record|
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|Publisher Web site:||http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201220719|
|Publisher statement:||Reproduced with permission from Astronomy & Astrophysics, © ESO|
|Date accepted:||No date available|
|Date deposited:||15 July 2014|
|Date of first online publication:||March 2013|
|Date first made open access:||No date available|
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