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Macroalgae-derived biofuel : a review of methods of energy extraction from seaweed biomass.

Milledge, John J. and Smith, Benjamin and Dyer, Philip W. and Harvey, Patricia (2014) 'Macroalgae-derived biofuel : a review of methods of energy extraction from seaweed biomass.', Energies., 7 (11). pp. 7194-7222.


The potential of algal biomass as a source of liquid and gaseous biofuels is a highly topical theme, but as yet there is no successful economically viable commercial system producing biofuel. However, the majority of the research has focused on producing fuels from microalgae rather than from macroalgae. This article briefly reviews the methods by which useful energy may be extracted from macroalgae biomass including: direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, trans-esterification to biodiesel, hydrothermal liquefaction, fermentation to bioethanol, fermentation to biobutanol and anaerobic digestion, and explores technical and engineering difficulties that remain to be resolved.

Item Type:Article
Keywords:Seaweed, Macroalgae, Algae, Bioenergy, Pyrolysis, Gasification, Liquefaction, Fermentation, Anaerobic digestion.
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Available under License - Creative Commons Attribution.
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Publisher statement:© 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (
Date accepted:28 October 2014
Date deposited:03 December 2014
Date of first online publication:07 November 2014
Date first made open access:No date available

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