We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. By continuing to browse this repository, you give consent for essential cookies to be used. You can read more about our Privacy and Cookie Policy.

Durham Research Online
You are in:

The variable hard X-ray emission of NGC 4945 as observed by NuSTAR.

Puccetti, S. and Comastri, A. and Fiore, F. and Arévalo, P. and Risaliti, G. and Bauer, F.E. and Brandt, W.N. and Stern, D. and Harrison, F.A. and Alexander, D.M. and Boggs, S.E. and Christensen, F.E. and Craig, W.W. and Gandhi, P. and Hailey, C.J. and Koss, M.J. and Lansbury, G.B. and Luo, B. and Madejski, G.M. and Matt, G. and Walton, D.J. and Zhang, W. (2014) 'The variable hard X-ray emission of NGC 4945 as observed by NuSTAR.', Astrophysical journal., 793 (1). p. 26.


We present a broadband (~0.5-79 keV) spectral and temporal analysis of multiple NuSTAR observations combined with archival Suzaku and Chandra data of NGC 4945, the brightest extragalactic source at 100 keV. We observe hard X-ray (>10 keV) flux and spectral variability, with flux variations of a factor of two on timescales of 20 ks. A variable primary continuum dominates the high-energy spectrum (>10 keV) in all states, while the reflected/scattered flux that dominates at E <10 keV stays approximately constant. From modeling the complex reflection/transmission spectrum, we derive a Compton depth along the line of sight of τThomson ~ 2.9, and a global covering factor for the circumnuclear gas of ~0.15. This agrees with the constraints derived from the high-energy variability, which implies that most of the high-energy flux is transmitted rather than Compton-scattered. This demonstrates the effectiveness of spectral analysis at constraining the geometric properties of the circumnuclear gas, and validates similar methods used for analyzing the spectra of other bright, Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The lower limits on the e-folding energy are between 200 and 300 keV, consistent with previous BeppoSAX, Suzaku, and Swift Burst Alert Telescope observations. The accretion rate, estimated from the X-ray luminosity and assuming a bolometric correction typical of type 2 AGN, is in the range ~0.1-0.3 λEdd depending on the flux state. The substantial observed X-ray luminosity variability of NGC 4945 implies that large errors can arise from using single-epoch X-ray data to derive L/L Edd values for obscured AGNs.

Item Type:Article
Additional Information:
Keywords:Galaxies: active, Galaxies: individual (NGC 4945), X-rays: galaxies.
Full text:(VoR) Version of Record
Download PDF
Publisher Web site:
Publisher statement:© 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Date accepted:14 July 2014
Date deposited:21 May 2015
Date of first online publication:September 2014
Date first made open access:No date available

Save or Share this output

Look up in GoogleScholar