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Durham Research Online
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Variation in the diet of killer whales Orcinus orca at Marion Island, Southern Ocean.

Reisinger, R.R. and Gröcke, D.R. and Lübcker, E.L. and McClymont, E.L. and Hoelzel, A.R. and Nico de Bruyn, P.J. (2016) 'Variation in the diet of killer whales Orcinus orca at Marion Island, Southern Ocean.', Marine ecology progress series., 549 . pp. 263-274.

Abstract

Diet seems to be a key factor driving diversity and isolation among killer whale populations. Killer whales at Marion Island, Southern Ocean, have been observed preying on seals and penguins but are also know to depredate Patagonian toothfish from longline fishing vessels. However, their diet is poorly known especially when they occur offshore. We analysed carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in 32 skin samples collected from 24 killer whales. Adult males showed higher δ15N values than adult females or subadults indicating that they occupy a higher relative trophic level. There were no significant differences in δ13C among 8 social units, but δ15N differed significantly and 2 social units which have been observed depredating Patagonian toothfish had higher δ15N values. The inshore presence of killer whales at Marion Island was a significant predictor of their δ13C values, but not of δ15N values. This suggests some foraging north of Marion Island, potentially on lower trophic level prey. We also analysed tissue samples from seal, penguin and Patagonian toothfish prey and used available values for Antarctic fur seals. Results show that killer whales around Marion Island are apex predators, but that they do not feed exclusively on other high trophic level predators such as elephant seals, fur seals, and Patagonian toothfish. Killer whales had δ15N values similar to those of Patagonian toothfish and adult male elephant seals, implying that the diet of killer whales at Marion Island includes some lower trophic level prey such as cephalopods or fishes.

Item Type:Article
Full text:(AM) Accepted Manuscript
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Status:Peer-reviewed
Publisher Web site:http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps11676
Date accepted:27 February 2016
Date deposited:15 March 2016
Date of first online publication:10 May 2016
Date first made open access:10 May 2017

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