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Intercontinental correlation of organic carbon and carbonate stable-isotope records : evidence of climate and sea-level change during the Turonian (Cretaceous).

Jarvis, I. and Trabucho-Alexandre, J. and Gröcke, D. R. and Uličný, D. and Laurin, J. (2015) 'Intercontinental correlation of organic carbon and carbonate stable-isotope records : evidence of climate and sea-level change during the Turonian (Cretaceous).', The depositional record., 1 (2). pp. 53-90.

Abstract

Carbon (δ13Corg, δ13Ccarb) and oxygen (δ18Ocarb) isotope records are presented for an expanded Upper Cretaceous (Turonian–Coniacian) hemipelagic succession cored in the central Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, Czech Republic. Geophysical logs, biostratigraphy and stable carbon isotope chemostratigraphy provide a high-resolution stratigraphic framework. The δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg profiles are compared, and the time series correlated with published coeval marine and non-marine isotope records from Europe, North America and Japan. All previously named Turonian carbon isotope events are identified and correlated at high-resolution between multiple sections, in different facies, basins and continents. The viability of using both carbonate and organic matter carbon isotope chemostratigraphy for improved stratigraphic resolution, for placing stage boundaries, and for intercontinental correlation is demonstrated, but anchoring the time series using biostratigraphic data is essential. An Early to Middle Turonian thermal maximum followed by a synchronous episode of stepped cooling throughout Europe during the Middle to Late Turonian is evidenced by bulk carbonate and brachiopod shell δ18Ocarb data, and regional changes in the distribution and composition of macrofaunal assemblages. The Late Turonian Cool Phase in Europe was coincident with a period of long-term sea-level fall, with significant water-mass reorganization occurring during the mid-Late Turonian maximum lowstand. Falling Δ13C (δ13Ccarb – δ13Corg) trends coincident with two major cooling pulses, point to pCO2 drawdown accompanying cooling, but the use of paired carbon isotopes as a high-resolution pCO2 proxy is compromised in the low-carbonate sediments of the Bohemian Basin study section by diagenetic overprinting of the δ13Ccarb record. Carbon isotope chemostratigraphy is confirmed as a powerful tool for testing and refining intercontinental and marine to terrestrial correlations.

Item Type:Article
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Status:Peer-reviewed
Publisher Web site:https://doi.org/10.1002/dep2.6
Publisher statement:© 2015 The Authors. The Depositional Record published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Sedimentologists. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Date accepted:14 December 2015
Date deposited:17 March 2016
Date of first online publication:29 January 2016
Date first made open access:17 March 2016

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