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Leadership in applied psychology : three waves of theory and research.

Lord, R. G. and Day, D. V. and Zaccaro, S. J. and Avolio, B. J. and Eagly, A. H. (2017) 'Leadership in applied psychology : three waves of theory and research.', Journal of applied psychology., 102 (3). pp. 434-451.


Although in the early years of the Journal leadership research was rare and focused primarily on traits differentiating leaders from nonleaders, subsequent to World War II the research area developed in 3 major waves of conceptual, empirical, and methodological advances: (a) behavioral and attitude research; (b) behavioral, social-cognitive, and contingency research; and (c) transformational, social exchange, team, and gender-related research. Our review of this work shows dramatic increases in sophistication from early research focusing on personnel issues associated with World War I to contemporary multilevel models and meta-analyses on teams, shared leadership, leader-member exchange, gender, ethical, abusive, charismatic, and transformational leadership. Yet, many of the themes that characterize contemporary leadership research were also present in earlier research.

Item Type:Article
Full text:(AM) Accepted Manuscript
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Publisher statement:© 2017 APA, all rights reserved. This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record.
Date accepted:03 March 2016
Date deposited:23 March 2016
Date of first online publication:26 January 2017
Date first made open access:28 July 2020

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