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Power and patronage in Pakistan.

Lyon, Stephen M. (2002) 'Power and patronage in Pakistan.', [UNSPECIFIED]


Asymmetrical power relationships are found throughout Pakistan?s Punjabi and Pukhtun communities. This thesis argues that these relationships must be examined as manifestations of cultural continuity rather than as separate structures. The various cultures of Pakistan display certain common cultural features which suggest a reexamination of past analytical divisions of tribe and peasant societies. This thesis looks at the ways power is expressed, accumulated and maintained in three social contexts: kinship, caste and political relationships. These three social contexts are embedded within a collection of ?hybridising? cultures (i.e. cultures which exhibit strong mechanisms for cultural accommodation without loss of ?identity?). Socialisation within kin groups provides the building blocks for Pakistani asymmetrical relationships, which may usefully be understood as a form of patronage. As these social building blocks are transferred to non-kin contexts the patron/client aspects are more easily identi?ed and studied; however, this thesis argues that the core relationship roles exist even in close kinship contexts. The emphasis on asymmetry in personal relationships leads to rivalries between individuals who do not agree with each other?s claims to equality or superiority. There are mechanisms for defusing the tension and con?ict when such disagreements arise. State politics and religion are examined for the ways in which these patron/client roles are enacted on much larger scales but remain embedded within, and must respect, the cultural values underpinning those roles.

Additional Information:A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Social Anthropology, University of Kent, Canterbury.
Keywords:Development anthropology, Education, Gender, Pakistan.
Full text:(NA) Not Applicable
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Date accepted:No date available
Date deposited:No date available
Date of first online publication:February 2002
Date first made open access:No date available

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