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Leader-member exchange (LMX) and performance : a meta-analytic review.

Martin, R. and Guillaume, Y. and Thomas, G. and Lee, A. and Epitropaki, O. (2016) 'Leader-member exchange (LMX) and performance : a meta-analytic review.', Personnel psychology., 69 (1). pp. 67-121.


This paper reports a meta-analysis that examines the relationship between leader–member exchange (LMX) relationship quality and a multidimensional model of work performance (task, citizenship, and counterproductive performance). The results show a positive relationship between LMX and task performance (146 samples, ρ = .30) as well as citizenship performance (97 samples, ρ = .34), and negatively with counterproductive performance (19 samples, ρ = ‒.24). Of note, there was a positive relationship between LMX and objective task performance (20 samples, ρ = .24). Trust, motivation, empowerment, and job satisfaction mediated the relationship between LMX and task and citizenship performance with trust in the leader having the largest effect. There was no difference due to LMX measurement instrument (e.g., LMX7, LMX-MDM). Overall, the relationship between LMX and performance was weaker when (a) measures were obtained from a different source or method and (b) LMX was measured by the follower than the leader (with common source- and method-biased effects stronger for leader-rated LMX quality). Finally, there was evidence for LMX leading to task performance but not for reverse or reciprocal directions of effects.

Item Type:Article
Full text:(AM) Accepted Manuscript
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Publisher statement:This is the accepted version of the following article: Martin, R., Guillaume, Y., Thomas, G., Lee, A. and Epitropaki, O. (2016), Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) and Performance: A Meta-Analytic Review. Personnel Psychology, 69(1): 67-121, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance With Wiley Terms and Conditions for self-archiving.
Date accepted:03 November 2014
Date deposited:28 April 2016
Date of first online publication:25 April 2015
Date first made open access:25 April 2017

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