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Statistical and correlational techniques.

Gorard, S. (2017) 'Statistical and correlational techniques.', in Research methods and methodologies in education. London: Sage, pp. 119-124.


This chapter presents a simple introduction to some of the uses of numbers in education research, illustrating a few of the many and varied research questions that can be addressed with numeric evidence. It is important to realise that using numbers involves no kind of paradigmatic or epistemological assumptions – the supposed ‘paradigms’ of quantitative and qualitative research are just red herrings. The chapter outlines some common sources of data and methods of analysis, before a relatively simple real-life example is presented. The bulk of the analysis was completed in less than two months and quickly led to several articles in high-prestige journals. Shorn of the schismic and other barriers that some commentators write about, apparently instead of doing research itself, doing research is really rather easy. And this is true even of work involving large-scale numeric datasets. The chapter ends by suggesting a few further examples of similar simple techniques.

Item Type:Book chapter
Full text:(AM) Accepted Manuscript
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Date accepted:12 July 2016
Date deposited:20 July 2016
Date of first online publication:01 March 2017
Date first made open access:01 March 2019

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