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Metal complexes for two-photon photodynamic therapy : a cyclometallated iridium complex induces two-photon photosensitization of cancer cells under near-IR light.

McKenzie, L. K. and Sazanovich, I. V. and Baggaley, E. and Bonneau, M. and Guerchais, V. and Williams, J. A. G. and Weinstein, J. A. and Bryant, H. E. (2017) 'Metal complexes for two-photon photodynamic therapy : a cyclometallated iridium complex induces two-photon photosensitization of cancer cells under near-IR light.', Chemistry : a European journal., 23 (2). pp. 234-238.

Abstract

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses photosensitizers (PS) which only become cytotoxic upon light-irradiation. Transition-metal complexes are highly promising PS due to long excited-state lifetimes, and high photo-stabilities. However, these complexes usually absorb higher-energy UV/Vis light, whereas the optimal tissue transparency is in the lower-energy NIR region. Two-photon excitation (TPE) can overcome this dichotomy, with simultaneous absorption of two lower-energy NIR-photons populating the same PS-active excited state as one higher-energy photon. We introduce two low-molecular weight, long-lived and photo-stable iridium complexes of the [Ir(N^C)2(N^N)]+ family with high TP-absorption, which localise to mitochondria and lysosomal structures in live cells. The compounds are efficient PS under 1-photon irradiation (405 nm) resulting in apoptotic cell death in diverse cancer cell lines at low light doses (3.6 J cm−2), low concentrations, and photo-indexes greater than 555. Remarkably 1 also displays high PS activity killing cancer cells under NIR two-photon excitation (760 nm), which along with its photo-stability indicates potential future clinical application.

Item Type:Article
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Status:Peer-reviewed
Publisher Web site:https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.201604792
Publisher statement:© 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Date accepted:13 October 2016
Date deposited:28 March 2017
Date of first online publication:02 November 2016
Date first made open access:28 March 2017

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