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Nondestructive X-ray diffraction measurement of warpage in silicon dies embedded in integrated circuit packages.

Tanner, B. K. and Danilewsky, A. N. and Vijayaraghavan, R. K. and Cowley, A. and McNally, P. J. (2017) 'Nondestructive X-ray diffraction measurement of warpage in silicon dies embedded in integrated circuit packages.', Journal of applied crystallography., 50 (2). pp. 547-554.


Transmission X-ray diffraction imaging in both monochromatic and white beam section mode has been used to measure quantitatively the displacement and warpage stress in encapsulated silicon devices. The displacement dependence with position on the die was found to agree well with that predicted from a simple model of warpage stress. For uQFN microcontrollers, glued only at the corners, the measured misorientation contours are consistent with those predicted using finite element analysis. The absolute displacement, measured along a line through the die centre, was comparable to that reported independently by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and optical interferometry of similar samples. It is demonstrated that the precision is greater than the spread of values found in randomly selected batches of commercial devices, making the techniques viable for industrial inspection purposes.

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Publisher statement:This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original authors and source are cited.
Date accepted:24 February 2017
Date deposited:03 May 2017
Date of first online publication:22 March 2017
Date first made open access:No date available

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