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The open flux problem.

Linker, J. A. and Caplan, R. M. and Downs, C. and Riley, P. and Mikic, Z. and Lionello, R. and Henney, C. J. and Arge, C. N. and Liu, Y. and Derosa, M. L. and Yeates, A. and Owens, M. J. (2017) 'The open flux problem.', The astrophysical journal., 848 (1). p. 70.

Abstract

The heliospheric magnetic field is of pivotal importance in solar and space physics. The field is rooted in the Sun's photosphere, where it has been observed for many years. Global maps of the solar magnetic field based on full-disk magnetograms are commonly used as boundary conditions for coronal and solar wind models. Two primary observational constraints on the models are (1) the open field regions in the model should approximately correspond to coronal holes (CHs) observed in emission and (2) the magnitude of the open magnetic flux in the model should match that inferred from in situ spacecraft measurements. In this study, we calculate both magnetohydrodynamic and potential field source surface solutions using 14 different magnetic maps produced from five different types of observatory magnetograms, for the time period surrounding 2010 July. We have found that for all of the model/map combinations, models that have CH areas close to observations underestimate the interplanetary magnetic flux, or, conversely, for models to match the interplanetary flux, the modeled open field regions are larger than CHs observed in EUV emission. In an alternative approach, we estimate the open magnetic flux entirely from solar observations by combining automatically detected CHs for Carrington rotation 2098 with observatory synoptic magnetic maps. This approach also underestimates the interplanetary magnetic flux. Our results imply that either typical observatory maps underestimate the Sun's magnetic flux, or a significant portion of the open magnetic flux is not rooted in regions that are obviously dark in EUV and X-ray emission.

Item Type:Article
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Status:Peer-reviewed
Publisher Web site:https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8a70
Publisher statement:© 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Date accepted:02 September 2017
Date deposited:19 October 2017
Date of first online publication:12 October 2017
Date first made open access:19 October 2017

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