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Phosphate-free inhibition of calcium carbonate dishwasher deposits.

Hong, Yuexian and Letzelter, Nathalie and Evans, John S. O. and Yufit, Dmitry S and Steed, Jonathan W. (2018) 'Phosphate-free inhibition of calcium carbonate dishwasher deposits.', Crystal growth & design., 18 (3). pp. 1526-1538.


This paper reports the characterization of the composition and morphology of mineral formation on glass and plastic (polymethylmethacrylate) substrates in a dishwasher environment and the identification of suitable phosphate-free mineral crystallization inhibitors as environmentally benign candidates to replace the currently used phosphate-containing inhibitor 1-hydroxyethane 1,1-diphosphoric acid (HEDP). Screening of the calcium carbonate crystallization inhibition performance of twenty-eight different compounds resulted in the identification of two phosphate-free, cyclic polycarboxylic acid inhibitors, which were found in combination to be effective replacements. Each inhibitor proved to be highly substrate specific with all-cis-cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexacarboxylic acid (CHHCA) preventing deposition on glass (where calcite is the dominant polymorph) and cis,cis,cis,cis-cyclopentane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid (CPTCA) inhibiting aragonite deposition on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). When used in combination, these two species prevented all forms of calcium carbonate deposition on both substrate types. The underlying inhibition mechanism and structural requirements of an efficient calcium carbonate inhibitor are also discussed.

Item Type:Article
Full text:(AM) Accepted Manuscript
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Publisher statement:This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Crystal Growth & Design, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see
Date accepted:22 January 2018
Date deposited:30 January 2018
Date of first online publication:22 January 2018
Date first made open access:22 January 2019

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