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Dissolved Mn(III) in water treatment works : prevalence and significance.

Johnson, K.L. and McCann, C.M. and Wilkinson, J.L. and Jones, M. and Tebo, B.M. and West, M. and Elgy, C. and Clarke, C.E. and Gowdy, C. and Hudson-Edwards, K.A. (2018) 'Dissolved Mn(III) in water treatment works : prevalence and significance.', Water research., 140 . pp. 181-190.


Dissolved Mn(III) has been identified at all stages throughout a Water Treatment Works (WTW) receiving inflow from a peaty upland catchment in NE England. Ninety percent of the influent total manganese into the WTW is particulate Mn, in the form of Mn oxide (>0.2 μm). Approximately 9% (mean value, n = 22, range of 0–100%) of the dissolved (<0.2 μm) influent Mn is present as dissolved Mn(III). Mn(III) concentrations are highest (mean of 49% of total dissolved Mn; n = 26, range of 17–89%) within the WTW where water comes into contact with the organic-rich sludges which are produced as waste products in the WTW. These Mn(III)-containing wastewaters are recirculated to the head of the works and constitute a large input of Mn(III) into the WTW. This is the first report of Mn(III) being identified in a WTW. The ability of Mn(III) to act as both an oxidant and a reductant is of interest to the water industry. Understanding the formation and removal of Mn(III) within may help reduce Mn oxide deposits in pipe networks. Further understanding how the ratio of Mn(III) to Mn(II) can be used to optimise dissolved Mn removal would save the water industry significant money in reducing discoloration ‘events’ at the customers' tap.

Item Type:Article
Full text:(AM) Accepted Manuscript
Available under License - Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.
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Publisher statement:© 2018 This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
Date accepted:17 April 2018
Date deposited:24 April 2018
Date of first online publication:17 April 2018
Date first made open access:17 April 2019

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