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Atomic data and spectral modeling constraints from high-resolution X-ray observations of the Perseus cluster with Hitomi*.

Hitomi Collaboration, and Aharonian, Felix and Akamatsu, Hiroki and Akimoto, Fumie and Allen, Steven W and Angelini, Lorella and Audard, Marc and Awaki, Hisamitsu and Axelsson, Magnus and Bamba, Aya and Bautz, Marshall W and Blandford, Roger and Brenneman, Laura W and Brown, Gregory V and Bulbul, Esra and Cackett, Edward M and Chernyakova, Maria and Chiao, Meng P and Coppi, Paolo S and Costantini, Elisa and de Plaa, Jelle and de Vries, Cor P and den Herder, Jan-Willem and Done, Chris and Dotani, Tadayasu and Ebisawa, Ken and Eckart, Megan E and Enoto, Teruaki and Ezoe, Yuichiro and Fabian, Andrew C and Ferrigno, Carlo and Foster, Adam R and Fujimoto, Ryuichi and Fukazawa, Yasushi and Furuzawa, Akihiro and Galeazzi, Massimiliano and Gallo, Luigi C and Gandhi, Poshak and Giustini, Margherita and Goldwurm, Andrea and Gu, Liyi and Guainazzi, Matteo and Haba, Yoshito and Hagino, Kouichi and Hamaguchi, Kenji and Harrus, Ilana M and Hatsukade, Isamu and Hayashi, Katsuhiro and Hayashi, Takayuki and Hayashida, Kiyoshi and Hell, Natalie and Hiraga, Junko S and Hornschemeier, Ann and Hoshino, Akio and Hughes, John P and Ichinohe, Yuto and Iizuka, Ryo and Inoue, Hajime and Inoue, Yoshiyuki and Ishida, Manabu and Ishikawa, Kumi and Ishisaki, Yoshitaka and Iwai, Masachika and Kaastra, Jelle and Kallman, Tim and Kamae, Tsuneyoshi and Kataoka, Jun and Katsuda, Satoru and Kawai, Nobuyuki and Kelley, Richard L and Kilbourne, Caroline A and Kitaguchi, Takao and Kitamoto, Shunji and Kitayama, Tetsu and Kohmura, Takayoshi and Kokubun, Motohide and Koyama, Katsuji and Koyama, Shu and Kretschmar, Peter and Krimm, Hans A and Kubota, Aya and Kunieda, Hideyo and Laurent, Philippe and Lee, Shiu-Hang and Leutenegger, Maurice A and Limousin, Olivier and Loewenstein, Michael and Long, Knox S and Lumb, David and Madejski, Greg and Maeda, Yoshitomo and Maier, Daniel and Makishima, Kazuo and Markevitch, Maxim and Matsumoto, Hironori and Matsushita, Kyoko and McCammon, Dan and McNamara, Brian R and Mehdipour, Missagh and Miller, Eric D and Miller, Jon M and Mineshige, Shin and Mitsuda, Kazuhisa and Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki and Miyazawa, Takuya and Mizuno, Tsunefumi and Mori, Hideyuki and Mori, Koji and Mukai, Koji and Murakami, Hiroshi and Mushotzky, Richard F and Nakagawa, Takao and Nakajima, Hiroshi and Nakamori, Takeshi and Nakashima, Shinya and Nakazawa, Kazuhiro and Nobukawa, Kumiko K and Nobukawa, Masayoshi and Noda, Hirofumi and Odaka, Hirokazu and Ohashi, Takaya and Ohno, Masanori and Okajima, Takashi and Ota, Naomi and Ozaki, Masanobu and Paerels, Frits and Paltani, Stéphane and Petre, Robert and Pinto, Ciro and Porter, Frederick S and Pottschmidt, Katja and Reynolds, Christopher S and Safi-Harb, Samar and Saito, Shinya and Sakai, Kazuhiro and Sasaki, Toru and Sato, Goro and Sato, Kosuke and Sato, Rie and Sawada, Makoto and Schartel, Norbert and Serlemtsos, Peter J and Seta, Hiromi and Shidatsu, Megumi and Simionescu, Aurora and Smith, Randall K and Soong, Yang and Stawarz, Łukasz and Sugawara, Yasuharu and Sugita, Satoshi and Szymkowiak, Andrew and Tajima, Hiroyasu and Takahashi, Hiromitsu and Takahashi, Tadayuki and Takeda, Shin’ichiro and Takei, Yoh and Tamagawa, Toru and Tamura, Takayuki and Tanaka, Takaaki and Tanaka, Yasuo and Tanaka, Yasuyuki T and Tashiro, Makoto S and Tawara, Yuzuru and Terada, Yukikatsu and Terashima, Yuichi and Tombesi, Francesco and Tomida, Hiroshi and Tsuboi, Yohko and Tsujimoto, Masahiro and Tsunemi, Hiroshi and Tsuru, Takeshi Go and Uchida, Hiroyuki and Uchiyama, Hideki and Uchiyama, Yasunobu and Ueda, Shutaro and Ueda, Yoshihiro and Uno, Shin’ichiro and Urry, C Megan and Ursino, Eugenio and Watanabe, Shin and Werner, Norbert and Wilkins, Dan R and Williams, Brian J and Yamada, Shinya and Yamaguchi, Hiroya and Yamaoka, Kazutaka and Yamasaki, Noriko Y and Yamauchi, Makoto and Yamauchi, Shigeo and Yaqoob, Tahir and Yatsu, Yoichi and Yonetoku, Daisuke and Zhuravleva, Irina and Zoghbi, Abderahmen and Raassen, A J J (2018) 'Atomic data and spectral modeling constraints from high-resolution X-ray observations of the Perseus cluster with Hitomi*.', Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan., 70 (2). p. 12.


The Hitomi Soft X-ray Spectrometer spectrum of the Perseus cluster, with ∼5 eV resolution in the 2–9 keV band, offers an unprecedented benchmark of the atomic modeling and database for hot collisional plasmas. It reveals both successes and challenges of the current atomic data and models. The latest versions of AtomDB/APEC (3.0.8), SPEX (3.03.00), and CHIANTI (8.0) all provide reasonable fits to the broad-band spectrum, and are in close agreement on best-fit temperature, emission measure, and abundances of a few elements such as Ni. For the Fe abundance, the APEC and SPEX measurements differ by 16%, which is 17 times higher than the statistical uncertainty. This is mostly attributed to the differences in adopted collisional excitation and dielectronic recombination rates of the strongest emission lines. We further investigate and compare the sensitivity of the derived physical parameters to the astrophysical source modeling and instrumental effects. The Hitomi results show that accurate atomic data and models are as important as the astrophysical modeling and instrumental calibration aspects. Substantial updates of atomic databases and targeted laboratory measurements are needed to get the current data and models ready for the data from the next Hitomi-level mission.

Item Type:Article
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Publisher statement:© The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Scots Philosophical Association and the University of St Andrews. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Date accepted:13 December 2017
Date deposited:31 May 2018
Date of first online publication:11 April 2018
Date first made open access:31 May 2018

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