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The varieties of inner speech questionnaire – revised (VISQ-R) : replicating and refining links between inner speech and psychopathology.

Alderson-Day, B. and Mitrenga, K. and Wilkinson, S. and McCarthy-Jones, S. and Fernyhough, C. (2018) 'The varieties of inner speech questionnaire – revised (VISQ-R) : replicating and refining links between inner speech and psychopathology.', Consciousness and cognition., 65 . pp. 48-58.


Inner speech is a common experience for many but hard to measure empirically. The Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire (VISQ) has been used to link everyday phenomenology of inner speech – such as inner dialogue – to various psychopathological traits. However, positive and supportive aspects of inner speech have not always been captured. This study presents a revised version of the scale – the VISQ-R – based on factor analyses in two large samples: respondents to a survey on inner speech and reading (N = 1412) and a sample of university students (N = 377). Exploratory factor analysis indicated a five-factor structure including three previous subscales (dialogic, condensed, and other people in inner speech), an evaluative/critical factor, and a new positive/regulatory factor. Confirmatory factor analysis then replicated this structure in sample 2. Hierarchical regression analyses also replicated a number of relations between inner speech, hallucination-proneness, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and dissociation.

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Publisher statement:© 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
Date accepted:02 July 2018
Date deposited:17 July 2018
Date of first online publication:13 July 2018
Date first made open access:17 July 2018

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