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Effects of parental intervention on behavioural and psychological outcomes for Kurdish parents and their children.

Sangawi, Hoshiar and Adams, John and Reissland, Nadja (2018) 'Effects of parental intervention on behavioural and psychological outcomes for Kurdish parents and their children.', Eastern Mediterranean health journal., 24 (5). pp. 459-468.


Background: Parenting interventions are rarely offered in developing countries and there is an urgent need to include low-income countries. Aims: To examine the effectiveness of Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) among Kurdish parents and their children. Methods: This was a randomized control pilot trial using pre- and post-test scores of 17 mothers (mean age 35.25 years, standard deviation 4.3 years; range: 29.58–45.3 years) who agreed to participate in the intervention. We utilized the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) to assess parenting style; Parental Stress Scale (PSS) to investigate parental stress; and Step Parenting Assessment Technique (SPAT) to identify whether participants in the treatment group had learned the material of the intervention. Results: There were significant differences between the groups on 3 subscales of the APQ: mother involvement subscale, F(1.13) = 25.81, P < 0.001, η2p = 0.67; inconsistent discipline subscale, F(1.13) = 25.46, P < 0.001, η2p = 0.66; and corporal punishment subscale F(1.13) = 17.3, P < 0.005, η2p = 0.57. A significant difference between groups was also found on the PSS, F(1.13) = 19.63, P < 0.001, η2p = 0.60. The changes were sustained over a 3-month period. No significant differences were found in academic self-concept and behavioural problems between children whose mothers attended STEP and others whose mothers did not attend. Conclusions: The STEP programme appears to promote parenting style and reduce the level of parental stress in Kurdish mothers. Trial Registration: IRCT2016032527125N1

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Publisher statement:Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (
Date accepted:20 July 2017
Date deposited:30 July 2018
Date of first online publication:01 May 2018
Date first made open access:30 July 2018

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