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Is every strong lens model unhappy in its own way? uniform modelling of a sample of 13 quadruply+ imaged quasars.

Shajib, A.J. and Birrer, S. and Treu, T. and Auger, M.W. and Agnello, A. and Anguita, T. and Buckley-Geer, E.J. and Chan, J.H.H. and Collett, T.E. and Courbin, F. and Fassnacht, C.D. and Frieman, J. and Kayo, I. and Lemon, C. and Lin, H. and Marshall, P.J. and McMahon, R. and More, A. and Morgan, N.D. and Motta, V. and Oguri, M. and Ostrovski, F. and Rusu, C.E. and Schechter, P.L. and Shanks, T. and Suyu, S.H. and Meylan, G. and Abbott, T.M.C. and Allam, S. and Annis, J. and Avila, S. and Bertin, E. and Brooks, D. and Carnero Rosell, A. and Carrasco Kind, M. and Carretero, J. and Cunha, C.E. and da Costa, L.N. and De Vicente, J. and Desai, S. and Doel, P. and Flaugher, B. and Fosalba, P. and García-Bellido, J. and Gerdes, D.W. and Gruen, D. and Gruendl, R.A. and Gutierrez, G. and Hartley, W.G. and Hollowood, D.L. and Hoyle, B. and James, D.J. and Kuehn, K. and Kuropatkin, N. and Lahav, O. and Lima, M. and Maia, M.A.G. and March, M. and Marshall, J.L. and Melchior, P. and Menanteau, F. and Miquel, R. and Plazas, A.A. and Sanchez, E. and Scarpine, V. and Sevilla-Noarbe, I. and Smith, M. and Soares-Santos, M. and Sobreira, F. and Suchyta, E. and Swanson, M.E.C. and Tarle, G. and Walker, A.R. (2019) 'Is every strong lens model unhappy in its own way? uniform modelling of a sample of 13 quadruply+ imaged quasars.', Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society., 483 (4). pp. 5649-5671.


Strong-gravitational lens systems with quadruply imaged quasars (quads) are unique probes to address several fundamental problems in cosmology and astrophysics. Although they are intrinsically very rare, ongoing and planned wide-field deep-sky surveys are set to discover thousands of such systems in the next decade. It is thus paramount to devise a general framework to model strong-lens systems to cope with this large influx without being limited by expert investigator time. We propose such a general modelling framework (implemented with the publicly available software LENSTRONOMY) and apply it to uniformly model three-band Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 images of 13 quads. This is the largest uniformly modelled sample of quads to date and paves the way for a variety of studies. To illustrate the scientific content of the sample, we investigate the alignment between the mass and light distribution in the deflectors. The position angles of these distributions are well-aligned, except when there is strong external shear. However, we find no correlation between the ellipticity of the light and mass distributions. We also show that the observed flux-ratios between the images depart significantly from the predictions of simple smooth models. The departures are strongest in the bluest band, consistent with microlensing being the dominant cause in addition to millilensing. Future papers will exploit this rich data set in combination with ground-based spectroscopy and time delays to determine quantities such as the Hubble constant, the free streaming length of dark matter, and the normalization of the initial stellar mass function.

Item Type:Article
Additional Information:A correction has been published: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 501, Issue 2, February 2021, Pages 2833–2835,
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Publisher statement:© 2018 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Date accepted:09 December 2018
Date deposited:14 March 2019
Date of first online publication:17 December 2018
Date first made open access:14 March 2019

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