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Evidence from plutonic xenoliths for magma differentiation, mixing and storage in a volatile-rich crystal mush beneath St. Eustatius, Lesser Antilles.

Cooper, George F. and Blundy, Jon D. and Macpherson, Colin G. and Humphreys, Madeleine C. S. and Davidson, Jon P. (2019) 'Evidence from plutonic xenoliths for magma differentiation, mixing and storage in a volatile-rich crystal mush beneath St. Eustatius, Lesser Antilles.', Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 174 (5). p. 39.


Quantifying the storage conditions and evolution of different magmatic components within sub-volcanic plumbing systems is key to our understanding of igneous processes and products. Whereas erupted magmas represent a portion of the eruptible volcanic system, plutonic xenoliths provide a complementary record of the mushy roots of the plumbing system that cannot be mobilised easily to form lavas and consequently offer a unique record of magma diversity within the sub-volcanic plumbing system. Here, we present a detailed petrological and geochemical study of erupted plutonic xenoliths from the island of Sint Eustatius (Statia), in the northern Lesser Antilles volcanic arc. The plutonic xenoliths are predominantly gabbroic, but vary in texture, mineral assemblage and crystallisation sequence. We report major, trace and volatile (H2O and CO2) concentrations of xenolith-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) and interstitial glass. The MIs have a very large range in major element (49–78 wt% SiO2 and 0.1–6.1 wt% MgO) and trace element concentration (72–377 ppm Sr, 32–686 ppm Ba, 39–211 ppm Zr). Their chemistry varies systematically with host phase and sample type. Significantly, it shows that (1) plutonic xenoliths record a complete differentiation sequence from basalt to rhyolite (2) apatite, but not zircon, saturation was reached during crystallisation, (3) amphibole breakdown reactions play a role in the genesis of shallow gabbronorite assemblages, and (4) mixing between crystal cargos and multiple discrete bodies occurred. Residual melt volatile contents are high (≤ 9.1 wt% H2O and ≤ 1350 ppm CO2), returning volatile saturation pressures of 0–426 MPa. Multiple reaction geobarometry and experimental comparisons indicate that equilibration took place in the upper-middle crust (0–15 km). We infer that the Statia plutonic xenoliths represent portions of a large heterogeneous crystal mush within which a great diversity of melts was stored and mixed prior to eruption. Our data show that compositional variations in magmatic plumbing systems exceed those observed in volcanic products, a likely consequence of the blending that occurs prior to and during eruption.

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Publisher statement:This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Date accepted:17 April 2019
Date deposited:08 May 2019
Date of first online publication:06 May 2019
Date first made open access:No date available

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