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Generalized exchange orientation : conceptualization and scale development.

Yoshikawa, K. and Wu, C. H. and Lee, H. (2020) 'Generalized exchange orientation : conceptualization and scale development.', Journal of applied psychology., 105 (3). pp. 294-311.


We conceptualize generalized exchange orientation, and develop and validate a scale assessing individual orientations toward generalized exchange as well as reciprocal and negotiated exchange for offering a full set of measurements for social exchange orientation. Through 4 phases and using data from 1,408 participants, we established factorial, nomological, discriminant, and incremental validity of the social exchange orientation Scale and examined measurement invariance of the scale between samples from the United States and Japan. First, our findings indicate the newly developed scale for generalized exchange orientation (GEO) is distinct from measures of other forms of social exchange orientation and prosocial orientation. Second, the GEO Scale shows incremental validity as it predicts citizenship behaviors toward individuals above and beyond the key dispositional antecedents known in the literature. Implications and future research on generalized exchange are discussed.

Item Type:Article
Full text:(AM) Accepted Manuscript
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Publisher statement:© 2019 APA, all rights reserved. This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record.
Date accepted:25 June 2019
Date deposited:28 June 2019
Date of first online publication:March 2020
Date first made open access:28 June 2019

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