We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. By continuing to browse this repository, you give consent for essential cookies to be used. You can read more about our Privacy and Cookie Policy.

Durham Research Online
You are in:

The Tekapo Glacier, New Zealand, during the Last Glacial Maximum : an active temperate glacier influenced by intermittent surge activity.

Sutherland, Jenna L. and Carrivick, Jonathan L. and Evans, David J.A. and Shulmeister, James and Quincey, Duncan J. (2019) 'The Tekapo Glacier, New Zealand, during the Last Glacial Maximum : an active temperate glacier influenced by intermittent surge activity.', Geomorphology., 343 . pp. 183-210.


Quaternary glaciations have created impressive landform assemblages that can be used to understand palaeo-glacier extent, character and behaviour, and hence past global and local glacier forcings. However, in the southern hemisphere and especially in New Zealand, the Quaternary glacial landform record is relatively poorly investigated with regard to glaciological properties. In this study, a 1 m digital elevation model (DEM) was generated from airborne LiDAR data and supplemented with aerial imagery and field observations to analyse the exceptionally well-preserved glacial geomorphology surrounding Lake Tekapo, New Zealand. We describe a rich suite of Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and recessional ice-marginal, subglacial, supraglacial, glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine landform assemblages. These represent two landsystems comprising i) fluted till surfaces with low-relief push moraine ridges; and ii) crevasse-squeeze ridges, ‘zig-zag’ eskers and attenuated lineations. The former landsystem records the behaviour of an active temperate glacier and the latter landsystem, which is superimposed upon and inset within the former, strongly suggests intermittent surge phases. The two landsystem signatures indicate a sequential change in ice-marginal dynamics during recession that was likely to have been partially non-climatically driven. Overall, we present the first evidence of surge-type glacier behaviour in New Zealand.

Item Type:Article
Full text:Publisher-imposed embargo
(AM) Accepted Manuscript
Available under License - Creative Commons Attribution.
File format - PDF
Full text:(VoR) Version of Record
Available under License - Creative Commons Attribution.
Download PDF
Publisher Web site:
Publisher statement:© 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license. (
Date accepted:16 July 2019
Date deposited:23 July 2019
Date of first online publication:21 July 2019
Date first made open access:No date available

Save or Share this output

Look up in GoogleScholar