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Evaluating the transferability and adversarial discrimination of convolutional neural networks for threat object detection and classification within x-ray security imagery.

Gaus, Y.F.A. and Bhowmik, N. and Akcay, S. and Breckon, T.P. (2019) 'Evaluating the transferability and adversarial discrimination of convolutional neural networks for threat object detection and classification within x-ray security imagery.', in 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Machine Learning And Applications (ICMLA), Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2019. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, pp. 420-425.

Abstract

X-ray imagery security screening is essential to maintaining transport security against a varying profile of threat or prohibited items. Particular interest lies in the automatic detection and classification of weapons such as firearms and knives within complex and cluttered X-ray security imagery. Here, we address this problem by exploring various end-to-end object detection Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architectures. We evaluate several leading variants spanning the Faster R-CNN, Mask R-CNN, and RetinaNet architectures to explore the transferability of such models between varying X-ray scanners with differing imaging geometries, image resolutions and material colour profiles. Whilst the limited availability of X-ray threat imagery can pose a challenge, we employ a transfer learning approach to evaluate whether such inter-scanner generalisation may exist over a multiple class detection problem. Overall, we achieve maximal detection performance using a Faster R-CNN architecture with a ResNet101 classification network, obtaining 0.88 and 0.86 of mean Average Precision (mAP) for a three-class and two class item from varying X-ray imaging sources. Our results exhibit a remarkable degree of generalisability in terms of cross-scanner performance (mAP: 0.87, firearm detection: 0.94 AP). In addition, we examine the inherent adversarial discriminative capability of such networks using a specifically generated adversarial dataset for firearms detection - with a variable low false positive, as low as 5%, this shows both the challenge and promise of such threat detection within X-ray security imagery.

Item Type:Book chapter
Full text:(AM) Accepted Manuscript
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Status:Peer-reviewed
Publisher Web site:https://doi.org/10.1109/ICMLA.2019.00079
Publisher statement:© 2019 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.
Date accepted:21 September 2019
Date deposited:29 December 2019
Date of first online publication:17 February 2020
Date first made open access:04 June 2020

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