We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. By continuing to browse this repository, you give consent for essential cookies to be used. You can read more about our Privacy and Cookie Policy.

Durham Research Online
You are in:

GRAMSES : a new route to general relativistic N-body simulations in cosmology - I. Methodology and code description.

Barrera-Hinojosa, Cristian and Li, Baojiu (2020) 'GRAMSES : a new route to general relativistic N-body simulations in cosmology - I. Methodology and code description.', Journal of cosmology and astroparticle physics., 01 . 007.


We present GRAMSES, a new pipeline for nonlinear cosmological N-body simulations in General Relativity (GR). This code adopts the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism of GR, with constant mean curvature and minimum distortion gauge fixings, which provides a fully nonlinear and background independent framework for relativistic cosmology. Employing a fully constrained formulation, the Einstein equations are reduced to a set of ten elliptical equations which are solved using multigrid relaxation with adaptive mesh refinements (AMR), and three hyperbolic equations for the evolution of tensor degrees of freedom. The current version of GRAMSES neglects the latter by using the conformal flatness approximation, which allows it to compute the two scalar and two vector degrees of freedom of the metric. In this paper we describe the methodology, implementation, code tests and first results for cosmological simulations in a ΛCDM universe, while the generation of initial conditions and physical results will be discussed elsewhere. Inheriting the efficient AMR and massive parallelisation infrastructure from the publicly-available N-body and hydrodynamic simulation code RAMSES, GRAMSES is ideal for studying the detailed behaviour of spacetime inside virialised cosmic structures and hence accurately quantifying the impact of backreaction effects on the cosmic expansion, as well as for investigating GR effects on cosmological observables using cosmic-volume simulations.

Item Type:Article
Full text:(AM) Accepted Manuscript
Available under License - Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial.
Download PDF
Publisher Web site:
Publisher statement:The deposited manuscript is available under a CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 licence.
Date accepted:06 December 2019
Date deposited:10 January 2020
Date of first online publication:02 January 2020
Date first made open access:02 January 2021

Save or Share this output

Look up in GoogleScholar