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Innovations in camera trapping technology and approaches : the integration of citizen science and artificial intelligence.

Green, S.E. and Rees, J.P. and Stephens, P.A. and Hill, R.A. and Giordano, A.J. (2020) 'Innovations in camera trapping technology and approaches : the integration of citizen science and artificial intelligence.', Animals, 10 (1). p. 132.


Camera trapping has become an increasingly reliable and mainstream tool for surveying a diversity of wildlife species. Concurrent with this has been an increasing effort to involve the wider public in the research process, in an approach known as ‘citizen science’. To date, millions of people have contributed to research across a wide variety of disciplines as a result. Although their value for public engagement was recognised early on, camera traps were initially ill‐suited for citizen science. As camera trap technology has evolved, cameras have become more user‐friendly and the enormous quantities of data they now collect has led researchers to seek assistance in classifying footage. This has now made camera trap research a prime candidate for citizen science, as reflected by the large number of camera trap projects now integrating public participation. Researchers are also turning to Artificial Intelligence (AI) to assist with classification of footage. Although this rapidly‐advancing field is already proving a useful tool, accuracy is variable and AI does not provide the social and engagement benefits associated with citizen science approaches. We propose, as a solution, more efforts to combine citizen science with AI to improve classification accuracy and efficiency while maintaining public involvement.

Item Type:Article
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Publisher statement:© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Date accepted:10 January 2020
Date deposited:10 January 2020
Date of first online publication:14 January 2020
Date first made open access:14 January 2020

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