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Correlates of hallucinatory experiences in the general population: an international multi-site replication study

Moseley, Peter and Aleman, André and Allen, Paul and Bell, Vaughan and Bless, Josef and Bortolon, Catherine and Cella, Matteo and Garrison, Jane and Hugdahl, Kenneth and Kozáková, Eva and Larøi, Frank and Moffatt, Jamie and Say, Nicolas and Smailes, David and Suzuki, Mimi and Toh, Wei Lin and Woodward, Todd and Zaytseva, Yuliya and Rossell, Susan and Fernyhough, Charles (2021) 'Correlates of hallucinatory experiences in the general population: an international multi-site replication study.', Psychological science., 32 (7). pp. 1024-1037.


Hallucinatory experiences can occur in both clinical and nonclinical groups. However, in previous studies of the general population, investigations of the cognitive mechanisms underlying hallucinatory experiences have yielded inconsistent results. We ran a large-scale preregistered multisite study, in which general-population participants (N = 1,394 across 11 data-collection sites and online) completed assessments of hallucinatory experiences, a measure of adverse childhood experiences, and four tasks: source memory, dichotic listening, backward digit span, and auditory signal detection. We found that hallucinatory experiences were associated with a higher false-alarm rate on the signal detection task and a greater number of reported adverse childhood experiences but not with any of the other cognitive measures employed. These findings are an important step in improving reproducibility in hallucinations research and suggest that the replicability of some findings regarding cognition in clinical samples needs to be investigated.

Item Type:Article
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Publisher statement:This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License ( which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page (
Date accepted:26 October 2020
Date deposited:29 October 2020
Date of first online publication:04 June 2021
Date first made open access:29 October 2020

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