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Current state and future prospects for electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems.

Abbas, Qaisar and Mirzaeian, Mojtaba and Hunt, Michael R.C. and Hall, Peter and Raza, Rizwan (2020) 'Current state and future prospects for electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems.', Energies., 13 (21). p. 5847.


Electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems such as electrochemical capacitors, batteries and fuel cells are considered as the most important technologies proposing environmentally friendly and sustainable solutions to address rapidly growing global energy demands and environmental concerns. Their commercial applications individually or in combination of two or more devices are based on their distinguishing properties e.g., energy/power densities, cyclability and efficiencies. In this review article, we have discussed some of the major electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems and encapsulated their technological advancement in recent years. Fundamental working principles and material compositions of various components such as electrodes and electrolytes have also been discussed. Furthermore, future challenges and perspectives for the applications of these technologies are discussed.

Item Type:Article
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Publisher statement:© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Date accepted:26 October 2020
Date deposited:10 November 2020
Date of first online publication:09 November 2020
Date first made open access:10 November 2020

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