We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. By continuing to browse this repository, you give consent for essential cookies to be used. You can read more about our Privacy and Cookie Policy.

Durham Research Online
You are in:

Archaeological cereals as an isotope record of long-term soil health and anthropogenic amendment in southern Scandinavia

Gron, K.J. and Larsson, M. and Gröcke, D.R. and Andersen, N.H. and Andreasen, M.H. and Bech, J.-H. and Henriksen, P.S. and Hilton, R.G. and Jessen, M.D. and Møller, N.A. and Nielsen, F.O. and Nielsen, P.O. and Pihl, A. and Sørensen, L. and Westphal, J. and Rowley-Conwy, P. and Church, M.J. (2021) 'Archaeological cereals as an isotope record of long-term soil health and anthropogenic amendment in southern Scandinavia.', Quaternary science reviews., 253 .


Maintaining soil health is integral to agricultural production, and the archaeological record contains multiple lines of palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental proxy evidence that can contribute to the understanding and analysis of long-term trajectories of change that are key for contextualizing 21st century global environmental challenges. Soil is a capital resource and its nutrient balance is modified by agricultural activities, making it necessary to ensure soil productivity is maintained and managed through human choices and actions. Since prehistory this has always been the case; soil is a non-renewable resource within a human lifetime. Here, we present and interpret carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of charred cereals from southern Scandinavia. Anthropogenic effects on soils are evident from the initiation of farming 6000 years ago, as is amendment to counteract its effects. The earliest cereals were planted on pristine soils, and by the late Neolithic, agriculture extensified. By the Iron Age it was necessary to significantly amend depleted soils to maintain crop yields. We propose that these data provide a record of soil water retention, net precipitation and amendment. From the start of the Neolithic there is a concurrent decrease in both Δ13C and δ15N, mitigated only by the replacement of soil organic content in the form of manure in the Iron Age. The cereal isotopes provide a record of trajectories of agricultural sustainability and anthropogenic adaptation for nearly the entire history of farming in the region.

Item Type:Article
Full text:(VoR) Version of Record
Available under License - Creative Commons Attribution 4.0.
Download PDF
Publisher Web site:
Publisher statement:© 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license(
Date accepted:10 December 2020
Date deposited:16 January 2021
Date of first online publication:12 January 2021
Date first made open access:16 January 2021

Save or Share this output

Look up in GoogleScholar