We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. By continuing to browse this repository, you give consent for essential cookies to be used. You can read more about our Privacy and Cookie Policy.

Durham Research Online
You are in:

Real-Time Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Neurofeedback for the Relief of Distressing Auditory-Verbal Hallucinations: Methodological and Empirical Advances

Humpston, Clara and Garrison, Jane and Orlov, Natasza and Aleman, André and Jardri, Renaud and Fernyhough, Charles and Allen, Paul (2020) 'Real-Time Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Neurofeedback for the Relief of Distressing Auditory-Verbal Hallucinations: Methodological and Empirical Advances.', Schizophrenia bulletin., 46 (6). pp. 1409-1417.


Auditory-verbal hallucinations (AVH) are often associated with high levels of distress and disability in individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. In around 30% of individuals with distressing AVH and diagnosed with schizophrenia, traditional antipsychotic drugs have little or no effect. Thus, it is important to develop mechanistic models of AVH to inform new treatments. Recently a small number of studies have begun to explore the use of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NF) for the treatment of AVH in individuals with schizophrenia. rtfMRI-NF protocols have been developed to provide feedback about brain activation in real time to enable participants to progressively achieve voluntary control over their brain activity. We offer a conceptual review of the background and general features of neurofeedback procedures before summarizing and evaluating existing mechanistic models of AVH to identify feasible neural targets for the application of rtfMRI-NF as a potential treatment. We consider methodological issues, including the choice of localizers and practicalities in logistics when setting up neurofeedback procedures in a clinical setting. We discuss clinical considerations relating to the use of rtfMRI-NF for AVH in individuals distressed by their experiences and put forward a number of questions and recommendations about best practice. Lastly, we conclude by offering suggestions for new avenues for neurofeedback methodology and mechanistic targets in relation to the research and treatment of AVH.

Item Type:Article
Full text:(VoR) Version of Record
Available under License - Creative Commons Attribution 4.0.
Download PDF
Publisher Web site:
Publisher statement:© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Date accepted:No date available
Date deposited:09 February 2021
Date of first online publication:02 August 2020
Date first made open access:09 February 2021

Save or Share this output

Look up in GoogleScholar