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The Arabidopsis R-SNARE VAMP714 is essential for polarization of PIN proteins and auxin responses

Gu, X. and Fonseka, K. and Agneessens, J. and Casson, S.A. and Smertenko, A. and Guo, G. and Topping, J.F. and Hussey, P.J. and Lindsey, K. (2021) 'The Arabidopsis R-SNARE VAMP714 is essential for polarization of PIN proteins and auxin responses.', New Phytologist, 230 (2). pp. 550-566.


The plant hormone auxin and its directional intercellular transport play a major role in diverse aspects of plant growth and development. The establishment of auxin gradients requires the asymmetric distribution of members of the auxin efflux carrier PIN‐FORMED (PIN) protein family to the plasma membrane. An endocytic pathway regulates the recycling of PIN proteins between the plasma membrane and endosomes, providing a mechanism for dynamic localisation. N‐Ethylmaleimide‐sensitive factor adaptor protein receptors (SNAP receptors, SNAREs) mediate fusion between vesicles and target membranes and are classed as Q‐ or R‐SNAREs based on their sequence. We analysed gain‐ and loss‐of‐function mutants, dominant‐negative transgenics and localisation of the Arabidopsis R‐SNARE VAMP714 protein to understand its function. We demonstrate that VAMP714 is essential for the insertion of PINs into the plasma membrane, for polar auxin transport, root gravitropism and morphogenesis. VAMP714 gene expression is upregulated by auxin, and the VAMP714 protein co‐localises with endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi vesicles and with PIN proteins at the plasma membrane. It is proposed that VAMP714 mediates the delivery of PIN‐carrying vesicles to the plasma membrane, and that this forms part of a positive regulatory loop in which auxin activates a VAMP714‐dependent PIN/auxin transport system to control development.

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Publisher statement:© 2021 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2021 New Phytologist Foundation This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Date accepted:23 December 2020
Date deposited:23 March 2021
Date of first online publication:10 February 2021
Date first made open access:23 March 2021

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