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Risk factors for Non-Communicable Diseases Related to Obesity among First- and Second-Generation Bangladeshi Migrants Living in North-east or South-east England

Akhter, Nasima and Begum, Khurshida and Nahar, Papreen and Cooper, Gillian and Vallis, Dimitris and Kasim, Adetayo and Bentley, Gillian R (2021) 'Risk factors for Non-Communicable Diseases Related to Obesity among First- and Second-Generation Bangladeshi Migrants Living in North-east or South-east England.', International journal of obesity., 45 (7). pp. 1588-1598.


Background: Obesity is a global burden, which significantly increases the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). More than a quarter of adults in the United Kingdom are obese, but prevalence varies by ethnicity, and South Asians have the largest burden of NCDs. This paper assesses how sex, generation, and region interplay to vary the predisposition to obesity-related (OR) NCDs among UK Bangladeshis. Methods: We used National Institute for Health and Care Excellence suggested grading for combining body mass index and waist circumference to define populations at risk of OR-NCDs. Data from 517 adults of Bangladeshi origin from a cross-sectional study (March 2013 to April 2015) were analysed. Male and female participants from London and north-east England were equally sampled including: (1) adult migrants, who came to the UK aged >16 years; (2) child migrants, who came to the UK aged ≤16 years; and (3) second-generation Bangladeshis (who were born and brought up in the UK). A generalised estimating equation using a binomial distribution and a logit link was used to explore the relationship between the binary outcome of being ‘at risk of OR-NCDs’ and associated factors. Results: Females, married individuals, those living in London, the second-generation, and those of lower self-assessed financial status, with low acculturation status, or who did not walk daily for at least 20 min were more likely to develop OR-NCDs. A striking sex difference was found with more females prone to OR-NCD risk in the north-east than in London. Conclusions: Our study observed important inter- and intra-regional inequality in OR-NCD risk which worsens the health of ethnic minorities and widens inequality.

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Publisher statement:Open Access: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
Date accepted:09 April 2021
Date deposited:13 April 2021
Date of first online publication:04 May 2021
Date first made open access:05 May 2021

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