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A bigger splat: The catastrophic geology of a 1.2-b.y.-old terrestrial megaclast, northwest Scotland

Killingback, Z. and Holdsworth, R.E. and Walker, R.J. and Nielsen, S. and Dempsey, E. and Hardman, K. (2020) 'A bigger splat: The catastrophic geology of a 1.2-b.y.-old terrestrial megaclast, northwest Scotland.', Geology, 49 (2). pp. 180-184.

Abstract

Rockfalls are relatively little described from the ancient geological record, likely due to their poor preservation potential. At Clachtoll, northwest Scotland, a megaclast (100 m × 60 m × 15 m) of Neoarchean Lewisian gneiss with an estimated mass of 243 kt is associated with basal breccias of the Mesoproterozoic Stoer Group. Foliation in the megablock is misoriented by ∼90° about a subvertical axis relative to that in the underlying basement gneisses, and it is cut by fracture networks filled with Stoer Group red sandstone. Bedded clastic fissure fills on top of the megablock preserve way-up criteria consistent with passive deposition during burial. Sediment-filled fractures on the lateral flanks and base show characteristics consistent with forceful injection. Using numerical calculations, we propose that rift-related seismic shaking caused the megablock to fall no more than 15 m onto unconsolidated wet sediment. On impact, overpressure and liquefaction of the water-laden sands below the basement block were sufficient to cause hydrofracturing and upward sediment slurry injection. In addition, asymmetrically distributed structures record internal deformation of the megablock as it slowed and came to rest. The megablock is unrelated to the younger Stac Fada impact event, and represents one of the oldest known terrestrial rockfall features on Earth.

Item Type:Article
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Status:Peer-reviewed
Publisher Web site:https://doi.org/10.1130/G48079.1
Publisher statement:© 2020 The Authors. Gold Open Access: This paper is published under the terms of the CC-BY license.
Date accepted:22 August 2020
Date deposited:26 May 2021
Date of first online publication:18 September 2020
Date first made open access:26 May 2021

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