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First Detection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Wild Frogs from Bangladesh

Rahman, Md. Mokhlesur and Jahan, Hawa and Rabbe, Md. Fazle and Chakraborty, Moumita and Salauddin, Md. (2021) 'First Detection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Wild Frogs from Bangladesh.', EcoHealth., 18 (1). pp. 31-43.


Global amphibian populations are facing a novel threat, chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which is responsible for the severe decline of a number of species across several continents. Chytridiomycosis in Asia is a relatively recent discovery yet there have been no reports on Bd-presence in Bangladeshi amphibians. We conducted a preliminary study on 133 wild frogs from seven sites in Bangladesh between April and July 2018. Nested PCR analysis showed 20 samples (15.04%) and 50% of the tested taxa (9 species from 6 genera and 4 families) as Bd-positive. Eight of the nine species are discovered as newly infected hosts. Analysis of Bd-positive samples shows prevalence does not significantly vary among different land cover categories, although the occurrence is higher in forested areas. The prevalence rate is similar in high and low disturbed areas, but the range of occurrence is statistically higher in low disturbance areas. Maximum entropy distribution modeling indicates high probabilities of Bd occurrence in hilly and forested areas in southeast and central-north Bangladesh. The Bd-specific ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence from the Bd-positive samples tested is completely identical. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree reveals that the identified strain shares a common ancestry with strains previously discovered in different Asian regions. Our results provide the first evidence of Bd-presence in Bangladeshi amphibians, inferring that diversity is at risk. The effects of environmental and climatic factors along with quantitative PCR analysis are required to determine the infection intensity and susceptibility of amphibians in the country.

Item Type:Article
Full text:Publisher-imposed embargo until 24 May 2022.
(AM) Accepted Manuscript
File format - PDF
Publisher Web site:
Publisher statement:This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in EcoHealth. The final authenticated version is available online at:
Date accepted:17 March 2021
Date deposited:19 July 2021
Date of first online publication:24 May 2021
Date first made open access:24 May 2022

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