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A Tidally Induced Global Corrugation Pattern in an External Disk Galaxy Similar to the Milky Way

Gómez, Facundo A. and Torres-Flores, Sergio and Mora-Urrejola, Catalina and Monachesi, Antonela and White, Simon D. M. and Maffione, Nicolas P. and Grand, Robert J. J. and Marinacci, Federico and Pakmor, Rüdiger and Springel, Volker and Frenk, Carlos S. and Amram, Philippe and Epinat, Benoît and de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes (2021) 'A Tidally Induced Global Corrugation Pattern in an External Disk Galaxy Similar to the Milky Way.', The Astrophysical Journal, 908 (1). p. 27.


We study the two-dimensional (2D) line-of-sight velocity (Vlos) field of the low-inclination, late-type galaxy VV304a. The resulting 2D kinematic map reveals a global, coherent, and extended perturbation that is likely associated with a recent interaction with the massive companion VV304b. We use multiband imaging and a suite of test-particle simulations to quantify the plausible strength of in-plane flows due to nonaxisymmetric perturbations and show that the observed velocity flows are much too large to be driven either by a spiral structure or by a bar. We use fully cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to characterize the contribution from in- and off-plane velocity flows to the Vlos field of recently interacting galaxy pairs like the VV304 system. We show that, for recently perturbed low-inclination galactic disks, the structure of the residual velocity field, after subtraction of an axisymmetric rotation model, can be dominated by vertical flows. Our results indicate that the Vlos perturbations in VV304a are consistent with a corrugation pattern. Its Vlos map suggests the presence of a structure similar to the Monoceros ring seen in the Milky Way. Our study highlights the possibility of addressing important questions regarding the nature and origin of vertical perturbations by measuring the line-of-sight velocities in low-inclination nearby galaxies.

Item Type:Article
Full text:(AM) Accepted Manuscript
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Publisher statement:This is the Accepted Manuscript version of an article accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal. IOP Publishing Ltd is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it. The Version of Record is available online at
Date accepted:23 November 2020
Date deposited:23 July 2021
Date of first online publication:09 February 2021
Date first made open access:09 February 2022

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