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The Cluster HEritage project with XMM-Newton: Mass Assembly and Thermodynamics at the Endpoint of structure formation

Arnaud, M. and Ettori, S. and Pratt, G. W. and Rossetti, M. and Eckert, D. and Gastaldello, F. and Gavazzi, R. and Kay, S.T. and Lovisari, L. and Maughan, B.J. and Pointecouteau, E. and Sereno, M. and Bartalucci, I. and Bonafede, A. and Bourdin, H. and Cassano, R. and Duffy, R.T. and Iqbal, A. and Maurogordato, S. and Rasia, E. and Sayers, J. and Andrade-Santos, F. and Aussel, H. and Barnes, D.J. and Barrena, R. and Borgani, S. and Burkutean, S. and Clerc, N. and Corasaniti, P.-S. and Cuillandre, J.-C. and De Grandi, S. and De Petris, M. and Dolag, K. and Donahue, M. and Ferragamo, A. and Gaspari, M. and Ghizzardi, S. and Gitti, M. and Haines, C.P. and Jauzac, M. and Johnston-Hollitt, M. and Jones, C. and Kéruzoré, F. and LeBrun, A.M.C. and Mayet, F. and Mazzotta, P. and Melin, J.-B. and Molendi, S. and Nonino, M. and Okabe, N. and Paltani, S. and Perotto, L. and Pires, S. and Radovich, M. and Rubino-Martin, J.-A. and Salvati, L. and Saro, A. and Sartoris, B. and Schellenberger, G. and Streblyanska, A. and Tarrío, P. and Tozzi, P. and Umetsu, K. and van der Burg, R.F.J. and Vazza, F. and Venturi, T. and Yepes, G. and Zarattini, S. (2021) 'The Cluster HEritage project with XMM-Newton: Mass Assembly and Thermodynamics at the Endpoint of structure formation.', Astronomy & astrophysics., 650 . A104.


The Cluster HEritage project with XMM-Newton – Mass Assembly and Thermodynamics at the Endpoint of structure formation (CHEX-MATE) is a three-mega-second Multi-Year Heritage Programme to obtain X-ray observations of a minimally-biased, signal-to-noise-limited sample of 118 galaxy clusters detected by Planck through the Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect. The programme, described in detail in this paper, aims to study the ultimate products of structure formation in time and mass. It is composed of a census of the most recent objects to have formed (Tier-1: 0.05 < z < 0.2; 2 × 1014 M⊙ < M500 < 9 × 1014 M⊙), together with a sample of the highest mass objects in the Universe (Tier-2: z < 0.6; M500 > 7.25 × 1014 M⊙). The programme will yield an accurate vision of the statistical properties of the underlying population, measure how the gas properties are shaped by collapse into the dark matter halo, uncover the provenance of non-gravitational heating, and resolve the major uncertainties in mass determination that limit the use of clusters for cosmological parameter estimation. We will acquire X-ray exposures of uniform depth, designed to obtain individual mass measurements accurate to 15 − 20% under the hydrostatic assumption. We present the project motivations, describe the programme definition, and detail the ongoing multi-wavelength observational (lensing, SZ, radio) and theoretical effort that is being deployed in support of the project.

Item Type:Article
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Publisher statement:Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Date accepted:10 February 2021
Date deposited:17 August 2021
Date of first online publication:15 June 2021
Date first made open access:17 August 2021

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