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Two’s a Crowd: Women Candidates in Concurrent Elections

Ditonto, Tessa and Andersen, David J. (2018) 'Two’s a Crowd: Women Candidates in Concurrent Elections.', Journal of Women, Politics & Policy, 39 (3). pp. 257-284.


Most research on evaluations of women candidates considers single elections in isolation. Using two Dynamic Process Tracing experiments, this article examines whether voters alter their evaluations of women candidates, as well as their willingness to learn about and vote for them, based on the presence of other women running simultaneously in concurrent contests. We find a consistent pattern in which female candidates are not adversely affected when they are the only woman on a voter’s ballot, but they are disadvantaged when other women appear on the same party’s ballot in other races. This effect is more prominent for women in lower offices: women running for the House of Representatives are more disadvantaged than women running for higher offices are.

Item Type:Article
Full text:(AM) Accepted Manuscript
Available under License - Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial 4.0.
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Publisher statement:This is an Accepted Manuscript version of the following article, accepted for publication in Journal of Women, Politics & Policy. Ditonto, Tessa & Andersen, David J. (2018). Two’s a Crowd: Women Candidates in Concurrent Elections. Journal of Women, Politics & Policy 39(3): 257-284.. It is deposited under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Date accepted:No date available
Date deposited:15 October 2021
Date of first online publication:20 June 2018
Date first made open access:15 October 2021

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