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A Taxonomy of Game Elements for Gamification in Educational Contexts: Proposal and Evaluation

Toda, Armando and Oliveira, Wilk and Klock, Ana and Shi, Lei and Bittencourt, Ig Ibert and Gasparini, Isabela and Isotani, Seiji and Cristea, Alexandra I. and Palomino, Paula (2019) 'A Taxonomy of Game Elements for Gamification in Educational Contexts: Proposal and Evaluation.', International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies and Technology-enhanced Learning Maceió, Brazil, 15-18 July 2019.


Gamification has been widely employed in the educational domain over the past eight years when the term became a trend. However, the literature states that gamification still lacks formal definitions to support the design of gamified strategies. This paper aims to create a taxonomy for the game elements, based on gamification experts' opinions. After a brief review from existing work, we extract first the game elements from the current state of the art, and then evaluate them via a survey with 19 gamification and education experts. The resulting taxonomy taxonomy included the description of 21 game elements and their quantitative and qualitative evaluation by the experts. Overall, the proposed taxonomy was in general well accepted by most of the experts. They also suggested expanding it with the inclusion of Narrative and Storytelling game elements. Thus, the main contribution of this paper is proposing a new, confirmed taxonomy to standardise the terminology used to define the game elements as a mean to design and deploy gamification strategies in the educational domain.

Item Type:Conference item (Paper)
Full text:(AM) Accepted Manuscript
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Publisher statement:© 2019 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.
Date accepted:22 March 2019
Date deposited:03 November 2021
Date of first online publication:02 September 2019
Date first made open access:03 November 2021

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