We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. By continuing to browse this repository, you give consent for essential cookies to be used. You can read more about our Privacy and Cookie Policy.

Durham Research Online
You are in:

Can We Use Gamification to Predict Students’ Performance? A Case Study Supported by an Online Judge

Pereira, Filipe D. and Toda, Armando and Oliveira, Elaine H. T. and Cristea, Alexandra I. and Isotani, Seiji and Laranjeira, Dion and Almeida, Adriano and Mendonça, Jonas (2020) 'Can We Use Gamification to Predict Students’ Performance? A Case Study Supported by an Online Judge.', ITS 2020 Athens / Virtual, 8-12 June 2021.


The impact of gamification has been typically evaluated via self-report assessments (questionnaires, surveys, etc.). In this work, we analise the use of gamification elements as parameters, to predict whether students are going to fail or not in a programming course. Additionally, unlike prior research, we verify how usage of gamification features can predict student performance not only as a discrete, but as a continuous measure as well, via classification and regression, respectively. Moreover, we apply our approach onto two programming courses from two different universities and involve three gamification features, i.e., ranking, score, and attempts. Our results for both predictions are notable: by using data from only the first quarter of the course, we obtain 89% accuracy for the binary classification task, and explain 78% of the students’ final grade variance, with a mean absolute error of 1.05, for regression. Additionally and interestingly, initial observations point also to gamification elements used in the online judge encouraging competition and collaboration. For the former, students that solved more problems, with fewer attempts, achieved higher scores and ranking. For the latter, students formed groups to generate ideas, then implemented their own solution.

Item Type:Conference item (Paper)
Full text:(AM) Accepted Manuscript
Download PDF
Publisher Web site:
Publisher statement:The final authenticated version is available online at
Date accepted:No date available
Date deposited:05 November 2021
Date of first online publication:03 June 2020
Date first made open access:05 November 2021

Save or Share this output

Look up in GoogleScholar