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Digital Resilience through Training Protocols: Identifying Fake News on Social Media

Soetekouw, L. and Angelopoulos, S. (2022) 'Digital Resilience through Training Protocols: Identifying Fake News on Social Media.', Information Systems Frontiers .


We explore whether training protocols can enhance the ability of social media users to detect fake news, by conducting an online experiment (N=417) to analyse the effect of such a training protocol, while considering the role of scepticism, age, and level of education. Our findings show a significant relationship between the training protocol and the ability of social media users to detect fake news, suggesting that the protocol can play a positive role in training social media users to recognize fake news. Moreover, we find a direct positive relationship between age and level of education on the one hand and ability to detect fake news on the other, which has implications for future research. We demonstrate the potential of training protocols in countering the effects of fake news, as a scalable solution that empowers users and addresses concerns about the time-consuming nature of fact-checking.

Item Type:Article
Full text:Publisher-imposed embargo
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Publisher statement:Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
Date accepted:21 December 2021
Date deposited:04 January 2022
Date of first online publication:19 January 2022
Date first made open access:08 February 2022

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