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Sandhills, sandbanks, waterways, canals and sacred lakes at Sais in the Nile Delta

Wilson, Penelope and Ghazala, Hosni (2021) 'Sandhills, sandbanks, waterways, canals and sacred lakes at Sais in the Nile Delta.', E&G Quaternary Science Journal, 70 (1). pp. 129-143.


The paper explores the relationship between the archaeological zones of the ancient city of Sais at Sa el-Hagar, Egypt, and the natural landscape of the western central Nile Delta and, in particular, the extent to which the dynamic form of the landscape was an element in the choice of settlement location. Furthermore, settlement at Sais has been determined to have existed at several locations in the immediate environs of the current archaeological zones from the Neolithic period, around 4000 BCE (Before Common Era), to the modern day, suggesting that the local environment was conducive to sustainable settlement, culminating in the establishment of a capital city in the 7th century BCE. The nature of the settlement, its immediate environs and waterway systems will, thus, be described, based on correlation of geological, geophysical, remote sensing and archaeological data, in order to establish if and when human interactions in the landscape can be determined to be reactive or proactive.

Item Type:Article
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Available under License - Creative Commons Attribution 4.0.
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Publisher statement:© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Date accepted:16 April 2021
Date deposited:06 January 2022
Date of first online publication:25 May 2021
Date first made open access:06 January 2022

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